Like SAP HR, SAP CRM also supports organizational management. Org Management allows the assignment of Business Roles to OM objects (like positions, org units, etc). The transaction to maintain OM structure in CRM is PPOMA_CRM. PPOMA_CRM allows us to search for particular OM objects and create new ones. The below screen shows a typical org hierarchy.
As you can see from the above, PPOMA_CRM is very similar to the ECC transaction PPOMA. Since we have already talked at length about Org Management in SAP HCM, I would not repeat the same here. Please feel free to have another look at the posts for Org Management under SAP HCM security.
For a user to work on CRM processes, the user needs to be assigned to a business partner. In the example above, we have the BP HR00160008 assigned to the Position 30002593.
SAP CRM allows role assignment in two basic ways, indirectly through Business Roles in PPOMA_CRM or directly through security roles assigned to user masters in SU01.
Indirecty role assignment is recommended by SAP as for large organisations with many CRM users and business roles it can lead to significant reduction in maintenance effort. For indirect maintenace, the Business Roles are maintained on a position for a user.
To maintain the business role for an OM object like a position, we select the position in PPOMA_CRM and the menu path goto>detail object>Enhanced Object Description which opens transaction PP01.
From the initial PP01 screen, we can maintain the appropriate value for Business Role for the chosen position.
With the position linked to a user and a business role assigned to the position we are now in a position to assign a security role to the user. While its also possible to directly assign a security role to the user at this stage, SAP provides the report CRMD_UI_ROLE_ASSIGN to make our job easier.
The report can be run for both users or user groups. It basically looks up positions linked to the respective users, checks the business roles assigned to these positions and finally assigns the security roles corresponsing to them to the user masters. The report log after role assignment is shown below
It is also possible to directly assign a security role to a user rather than go through these intermediate steps outlines above. To make this work, in addition to the security role the user parameter CRM_UI_PROFILE needs to be maintained with the correct business role as part of the user master. This removes the need of maintaining the Business Role on the position. However, since all CRM users need to be part of OM structure, it makes sense to use the indirect assignement rather than the direct one.
An Evaluation Path is a chain of relationships between related OM objects in the Organizational Hierarchy. Different evaluation paths can be used to return different sets of OM objects even when all of the individual paths start from the same start object. As such, evaluation paths are used in a lot in OM reports and in structural authorizations.
Evaluation Paths are created/maintained through the transaction OOAW shown below. The standard SAP system ships with a number of pre-defined evaluation paths. Since the standard evaluation paths can only use the standard relationships and objects defined in SAP, it stands to reason that we need to create new evaluation paths to use our own relationships/OM objects.
As an example we select the evaluation path PERSON and see how its defined
The PERSON evaluation path is meant to return the OM objects used in staffing along a standard organizational hierarchy. As such it can be used to evaluate the reportees of a line supervisor and is used as such in the MANAGER structural profile. The definition of the evaluation path starts with an org unit. The path returns all positions (S) assigned to the start org unit (O) and the persons (P) linked to the said positions. Finally to build the entire org hierarchy the path continues to evaluate the sub-ordinate org units and positions (lines 30 and 40).
Once defined, the evaluation path can be used to return a particular view of the org hierarchy through the PPST transaction.
The report output shows the evaluated objects.
In the next article, we explore the use of evaluation paths in defining structural authorizations or PD profiles
This article about organizational management is meant to be a launchpad to our discussion on structural authorizations– an unique and indispensable part of HR security. We ave already have had a brief idea on Org Mgmt or OM when talking about the PLOG authorization object. Lets take the discussion forward to the next level.
OM deals with the representation of the personnel organizational structure within an enterprise within SAP HCM. OM uses the same data model as used by Personnel Planning. The data model uses object-oriented design and uses the concepts of
The data model can be represented by the following graphic. Note that object types, Person and Cost Center are shown as orange boxes instead of blue ones. These are External Objects and not created in the OM component. However, they have relationships with normal OM objects.
A typical org structure when represented by the same data model might look something like the graphic (transaction PPOC) shown below
In OM, each element in an organization is represented by a distinct object with individual characteristics. Relationships are used to link one object to another. The objects and their relationships can be created and maintained through standard transactions (like PP01). The network created by objects and relationships are flexible enough to facilitate personnel planning, projections and evaluations of the org structure. Customizing is used to enhance the existing object types or create completely new ones. Customizing also allows the creation of new relationships and maintenance of those relationships for existing or new object types.
Each standard object type is represented by a letter code (P = Person, O = Org Unit, S = Position, C = Job) while customized object types are represented by two letters like 9P. Relationships on the other hand are represented by a 3 digit code like 008 (belongs to), 012 (manages). Customer relationships are also 3 letters long but start with Z, like Z20.
The unique object id for an object type is stored in IT 1000 (table HRP1000)
while the relationship between two objects is stored in the IT 1001 (table HRP1001).
Finally, the org structure composed through these two tables is displayed through the PPOSE transaction as shown below